Ropper - You Can Use Ropper To Display Information About Files In Different File Formats And You Can Find Gadgets To Build Rop Chains For Different Architectures (X86/X86_64, ARM/ARM64, MIPS, PowerPC)

You can use ropper to display information about binary files in different file formats and you can search for gadgets to build rop chains for different architectures (x86/X86_64, ARM/ARM64, MIPS/MIPS64, PowerPC). For disassembly ropper uses the awesome Capstone Framework.
NOTE: I recommend to use the dev version of ropper, because bugfixes are earlier available in dev branch.

Install
Install Capstone with PyPi:
$ sudo pip install capstone
Install filebytes with PyPi:
$ sudo pip install filebytes
Optional (not needed to run ropper just to look for gadgets):
Install Keystone:
$ sudo pip install keystone-engine
Install and execute Ropper
$ python setup.py install
$ ropper
You can also install Ropper with pip
$ pip install ropper
If you want, you can use Ropper without installation
$ ./Ropper.py
If you don't want to install filebytes, filebytes is a submodule of the ropper repository. This means you don't need to install filebytes and ropper.
$ git clone https://github.com/sashs/ropper.git
$ cd ropper
$ git submodule init
$ git submodule update
$ ./Ropper.py
THIS FEATURE IS STILL UNDER DEVELOPEMENT! Ropper has a semantic search command, which offers the possiblity to search for gadgets. Due to a dependency, this command only works with python2 on linux, but I am working on porting this dependency to python3. Since python3 is default on some systems, ropper2 can be used to execute ropper with python2.
$ ropper2 --file <afile> --semantic "<any constraint>"
The following optional dependencies are needed to use semantic search:
Install pyvex
$ sudo pip install pyvex
Install z3py
$ python scripts/mk_make.py
$ cd build
$ make
$ sudo make install

Currently Possible Constraints
reg == reg     -  assign register to another
reg == number - assign number to register
reg == [reg] - assign memory to register
reg += number/reg/[reg]
reg -= number/reg/[reg]
reg *= number/reg/[reg]
reg /= number/reg/[reg]

Constraint Example
eax==1 !ebx    - set eax to 1 and look for gadgets which does not clobber ebx


Usage
usage: Ropper.py [-h] [-v] [--console] [-f <file>] [-r] [-a <arch>]
[--section <section>] [--string [<string>]] [--hex]
[--asm <asm> [H|S|R] [<asm> [H|S|R] ...]] [--disasm <opcode>]
[--disassemble-address <address:length>] [-i] [-e]
[--imagebase] [-c] [-s] [-S] [--imports] [--symbols]
[--set <option>] [--unset <option>] [-I <imagebase>] [-p]
[-j <reg>] [--stack-pivot] [--inst-count <n bytes>]
[--search <regex>] [--quality <quality>] [--opcode <opcode>]
[--instructions <instructions>] [--type <type>] [--detailed]
[--all] [--cfg-only] [--chain <generator>] [-b <badbytes>]
[--nocolor] [--clear-cache]

You can use ropper to display information about binary files in different file formats
and you can search for gadgets to build rop chains for different architectures

supported filetypes:
ELF
PE
Mach-O
Raw

supported architectures:
x86 [x86]
x86_64 [x86_64]
MIPS [MIPS, MIPS64]
ARM/Thumb [ARM, ARMTHUMB]
ARM64 [ARM64]
PowerPC [PPC, PPC64]

available rop chain generators:
execve (execve[=<cmd>], default /bin/sh) [Linux x86, x86_64]
mprotect (mprotect=<address>:<size>) [Linux x86, x86_64]
virtualprotect (virtualprotect=<address iat vp>:<size>) [Windows x86]

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit
-v, --version Print version
--console Starts interactive commandline
-f <file>, --file <file>
The file to load
-r, --raw Loads the file as raw file
-a <arch>, --arch <arch>
The architecture of the loaded file
--section <section> The data of the this section should be printed
--string [<string>] Looks for the string <string> in all data sections
--hex Prints the selected sections in a hex format
--asm <asm> [H|S|R] [<asm> [H|S|R] ...]
A string to assemble and a format of the output
(H=HEX, S=STRING, R=RAW, default: H)
--disasm <opcode> Opcode to disassemble (e.g. ffe4, 89c8c3, ...)
--disassemble-address <address:length>
Disassembles instruction at address <address>
(0x12345678:L3). The count of instructions to
disassemble can be specified (0x....:L...)
-i, --info Shows file header [ELF/PE/Mach-O]
-e Shows EntryPoint
--imagebase Shows ImageBase [ELF/PE/Mach-O]
-c, --dllcharacteristics
Shows DllCharacteristics [PE]
-s, --sections Shows file sections [ELF/PE/Mach-O]
-S, --segments Shows file segments [ELF/Mach-O]
--imports Shows imports [ELF/PE]
--symbols Shows symbols [ELF]
--set <option> Sets options. Available options: aslr nx
--unset <option> Unsets options. Available options: aslr nx
-I <imagebase> Uses this imagebase for gadgets
-p, --ppr Searches for 'pop reg; pop reg; ret' instructions
[only x86/x86_64]
-j <reg>, --jmp <reg>
Searches for 'jmp reg' instructions (-j reg[,reg...])
[only x86/x86_64]
--stack-pivot Prints all stack pivot gadgets
--inst-count <n bytes>
Specifies the max count of instructions in a gadget
(default: 6)
--search <regex> Searches for gadgets
--quality <quality> The quality for gadgets which are found by search (1 =
best)
--opcode <opcode> Searchs for opcodes (e.g. ffe4 or ffe? or ff??)
--instructions <instructions>
Searchs for instructions (e.g. "jmp esp", "pop eax;
ret")
--type <type> Sets the type of gadgets [rop, jop, sys, all]
(default: all)
--detailed Prints gadgets more detailed
--all Does not remove duplicate gadgets
--cfg-only Filters out gadgets which fail the Microsoft CFG
check. Only for PE files which are compiled with CFG
check enabled (check DllCharachteristics) [PE]
--chain <generator> Generates a ropchain [generator parameter=value[
parameter=value]]
-b <badbytes>, --badbytes <badbytes>
Set bytes which should not contains in gadgets
--nocolor Disables colored output
--clear-cache Clears the cache

example uses:
[Generic]
./Ropper.py
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --console

[Informations]
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --info
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --imports
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --sections
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --segments
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --set nx
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --unset nx
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --inst-count 5
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search "sub eax" --badbytes 000a0d
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search "sub eax" --detail
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --filter "sub eax"
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --inst-count 5 --filter "sub eax"
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --opcode ffe4
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --opcode ffe?
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --opcode ??e4
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --detailed
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --ppr --nocolor
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --jmp esp,eax
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --type jop
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --chain execve
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --chain "execve cmd=/bin/sh" --badbytes 000a0d
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --chain "mprotect address=0xbfdff000 size=0x21000"
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls /lib/libc.so.6 --console

[Assemble/Disassemble]
./Ropper.py --asm "jmp esp"
./Ropper.py --asm "mov eax, ecx; ret"
./Ropper.py --disasm ffe4

[Search]
./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search <searchstring>
? any character
% any string

Example:

./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search "mov e?x"
0x000067f1: mov edx, dword ptr [ebp + 0x14]; mov dword ptr [esp], edx; call eax
0x00006d03: mov eax, esi; pop ebx; pop esi; pop edi; pop ebp; ret ;
0x00006d6f: mov ebx, esi; mov esi, dword ptr [esp + 0x18]; add esp, 0x1c; ret ;
0x000076f8: mov eax, dword ptr [eax]; mov byte ptr [eax + edx], 0; add esp, 0x18; pop ebx; ret ;

./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search "mov [%], edx"
0x000067ed: mov dword ptr [esp + 4], edx; mov edx, dword ptr [ebp + 0x14]; mov dword ptr [esp], edx; call eax;
0x00006f4e: mov dword ptr [ecx + 0x14], edx; add esp, 0x2c; pop ebx; pop esi; pop edi; pop ebp; ret ;
0x000084b8: mov dword ptr [eax], edx; ret ;
0x00008d9b: mov dword ptr [eax], edx; add esp, 0x18; pop ebx; ret ;

./Ropper.py --file /bin/ls --search "mov [%], edx" --quality 1
0x000084b8: mov dword ptr [eax], edx; ret ;; ret ;

Use ropper in Scripts
#!/usr/bin/env python
from ropper import RopperService

# not all options need to be given
options = {'color' : False, # if gadgets are printed, use colored output: default: False
'badbytes': '00', # bad bytes which should not be in addresses or ropchains; default: ''
'all' : False, # Show all gadgets, this means to not remove double gadgets; default: False
'inst_count' : 6, # Number of instructions in a gadget; default: 6
'type' : 'all', # rop, jop, sys, all; default: all
'detailed' : False} # if gadgets are printed, use detailed output; default: False

rs = RopperService(options)

##### change options ######
rs.options.color = True
rs.options.badbytes = '00'
rs.options.badbytes = ''
rs.options.all = True


##### open binaries ######
# it is possible to open multiple files
rs.addFile('test-binaries/ls-x86')
rs.addFile('ls', bytes=open('test-binaries/ls-x86','rb').read()) # other possiblity
rs.addFile('ls_raw', bytes=open('test-binaries/ls-x86','rb').read(), raw=True, arch='x86')

##### close binaries ######
rs.removeFile('ls')
rs.removeFile('ls_raw')


# Set architecture of a binary, so it is possible to look for gadgets for a different architecture
# It is useful for ARM if you want to look for ARM gadgets or Thumb gadgets
# Or if you opened a raw file
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='x86')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='x86_64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='ARM')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='ARMTHUMB')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='ARM64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='MIPS')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='MIPS64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='PPC')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='PPC64')
rs.setArchitectureFor(name=ls, arch='x86')


##### load gadgets ######

# load gadgets for all opened files
rs.loadGadgetsFor()

# load gadgets for only one opened file
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
rs.loadGadgetsFor(name=ls)

# change gadget type
rs.options.type = 'jop'
rs.loadGadgetsFor()

rs.options.type = 'rop'
rs.loadGadgetsFor()

# change instruction count
rs.options.inst_count = 10
rs.loadGadgetsFor()

##### print gadgets #######
rs.printGadgetsFor() # print all gadgets
rs.printGadgetsFor(name=ls)

##### Get gadgets ######
gadgets = rs.getFileFor(name=ls).gadgets


##### search pop pop ret ######
pprs = rs.searchPopPopRet(name=ls) # looks for ppr only in 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
pprs = rs.searchPopPopRet() # looks for ppr in all opened files
for file, ppr in pprs.items():
for p in ppr:
print p

##### load jmp reg ######
jmp_regs = rs.searchJmpReg(name=ls, regs=['esp', 'eax']) # looks for jmp reg only in 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
jmp_regs = rs.searchJmpReg(regs=['esp', 'eax'])
jmp_regs = rs.searchJmpReg() # looks for jmp esp in all opened files
for file, jmp_reg in jmp_regs.items():
for j in jmp_reg:
print j


##### search opcode ######
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
gadgets_dict = rs.searchOpcode(opcode='ffe4', name=ls)
gadgets_dict = rs.searchOpcode(opcode='ffe?')
gadgets_dict = rs.searchOpcode(opcode='??e4')

for file, gadgets in gadgets_dict.items():
for g in gadgets:
print g

##### search instructions ######
ls = 'test-binaries/ls-x86'
for file, gadget in rs.search(search='mov e?x', name=ls):
print file, gadget

for file, gadget in rs.search(search='mov [e?x%]'):
print file, gadget

result_dict = rs.searchdict(search='mov eax')
for file, gadgets in result_dict.items():
print file
for gadget in gadgets:
print gadget

##### assemble instructions ######
hex_string = rs.asm('jmp esp')
print '"jmp esp" assembled to hex string =', hex_string
raw_bytes = rs.asm('jmp esp', format='raw')
print '"jmp esp" assembled to raw bytes =', raw_bytes
string = rs.asm('jmp esp', format='string')
print '"jmp esp" assembled to string =',string
arm_bytes = rs.asm('bx sp', arch='ARM')
print '"bx sp" assembled to hex string =', arm_bytes

##### disassemble bytes #######
arm_instructions = rs.disasm(arm_bytes, arch='ARM')
print arm_bytes, 'disassembled to "%s"' % arm_instructions

# Change the imagebase, this also change the imagebase for all loaded gadgets of this binary
rs.setImageBaseFor(name=ls, imagebase=0x0)

# reset image base
rs.setImageBaseFor(name=ls, imagebase=None)

gadgets = rs.getFileFor(name=ls).gadgets

# gadget address
print hex(gadgets[0].address)

# get instruction bytes of gadget
print bytes(gadgets[0].bytes).encode('hex')

# remove all gadgets containing bad bytes in address
rs.options.badbytes = '000a0d' # gadgets are filtered automatically

Project page
http://scoding.de/ropper

Screenshots










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Ropper - You Can Use Ropper To Display Information About Files In Different File Formats And You Can Find Gadgets To Build Rop Chains For Different Architectures (X86/X86_64, ARM/ARM64, MIPS, PowerPC) Ropper - You Can Use Ropper To Display Information About Files In Different File Formats And You Can Find Gadgets To Build Rop Chains For Different Architectures (X86/X86_64, ARM/ARM64, MIPS, PowerPC) Reviewed by Dump3R H3id3gg3R on 5:48 AM Rating: 5